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In this pathway many neurotransmitters play a role in the activation of the reward sensation, including dopamine , serotonin and opioid chemicals.
Research suggests higher amounts of dopamine is released when the reward is unknown and the stimulus is unfamiliar, compared to activation of dopamine when stimulus is familiar. As previously mentioned, the reward pathway is an integral part in the induction of curiosity.
The release of dopamine in investigating response to novel or exciting stimuli.
The fast dopamine release observed during childhood and adolescence is important in development, as curiosity and exploratory behavior are the largest facilitators of learning during early years. In addition, the sensation pleasure of "liking" can occur when opioids are released by nucleus accumbens. This helps someone evaluate the unfamiliar situation or environment and attach value to the novel object.
These processes of both wanting and liking play a role in activating the reward system of the brain, and perhaps in the stimulation of curious or information-seeking tendencies as well. The caudate nucleus is another component of the reward pathway.
Research has suggested the role of the caudate nucleus anticipates the possibility of and is in anticipation of reward of exploratory behavior and gathered information, thus contributing to factors of curiosity.
However, cortisol may also be associated with curious or exploratory behavior. Findings in recent studies suggesting the role of cortisol with curiosity support the idea of optimal arousal theory. It is suggested the release of a small amount cortisol causing stress encourages curious behavior, while too much stress can initiate a "back away" response.
As there are limited cognitive and sensory resources to understand and evaluate various stimuli, attention allows the brain to better focus on what it perceives to be the most important or relevant of these stimuli.
Individuals tend to focus their energies on stimuli that are particularly stimulating or engaging. Indicating that the more attention a stimulus garners, the more frequent one's energy and focus will be directed towards that stimulus. This idea suggests an individual will focus their attention on new or unfamiliar stimuli in an effort to better understand or make sense of the unknown over the more familiar or repetitive stimuli.
Creating the idea that curiosity demands attention. It would seem natural that the striatum plays a role in attention and reward anticipation, both of which are important in the provocation of curiosity. There has been a correlation found between the amount of grey matter in the precuneus and levels of curious and exploratory behaviors; suggesting that the precuneus density has an influence on levels of curiosity.
If curiosity is the desire to seek out and understand unfamiliar or novel stimuli, one's memory is important in determining if the stimuli is indeed unfamiliar. Memory is the process by which the brain can store and access information. In order to determine if the stimulus is novel, an individual must remember if the stimulus has been encountered before. Thus, memory plays an integral role in dictating the level of novelty or unfamiliarity, and the level of need for curiosity.
It can also be suggested that curiosity can affect memory. As previously mentioned, stimuli that are novel tend to capture more of our attention. Additionally, novel stimuli usually have a reward value associated with them, the anticipated reward of what learning that new information may bring.
With stronger associations and more attention devoted to a stimulus, it is probable that the memory formed from that stimulus will be longer lasting and easier to recall, both of which facilitate better learning.
Hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus[ edit ] The hippocampus is important in memory formation and recall and therefore instrumental in determining the novelty of various stimuli. This finding suggests that the PHG may be involved in the amplification of curiosity more so than the primary induction of curiosity.
It is suggested the amygdala is important in processing emotional reactions towards novel or unexpected stimuli and the induction of exploratory behavior. This implies a potential connection between curiosity levels and the amygdala.
With a foreword by Roald Hoffmann. Mitchell and W. All rights reserved including those of translation in other languages.
No part of this book may be reproduced in any form — by photoprinting, or any other means —nor transmitted or translaved into machine language without written permission from the publishers, Registered names, trademarks, ete. Printing: betz-druck gmbh, D Darmstadt. Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany. Somewhere between white magic and science. Somewhere between gripping theater and chemistry. Somewhere between circus and the Zen koan that bestirs the dormant knowledge in a student's mind.
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