Modul Belajar Bahasa Perancis - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. bahasa. Acclaimed by language professionals from all over the world, the Oxford- Hachette French Dictionary leads its field. The dictionary is based on the statistical. Cours de francais 1: buku pelajaran bahasa Perancis untuk sekolah lanjutan tingkat atas / oleh A.C. BAHASA PERANCIS - KURSUS Download as PDF.
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Oct 25, KEPUNYAAN MOHAMAD FIQREE AFIQIE B MOHD NASHRUDDIN You too can learn French! Created by Jacques Lon Page design by. צרפתית, Apprendre le français, Μάθετε γαλλικά, जानें फ्रांसीसी, Belajar bahasa Perancis, Fransızca öğren, تعلم اللغة الفرنسية, Aprenda Francês. frenchwithvincent sibacgamete.ga / Simply the best place to learn French www. sibacgamete.ga
Written language is often moresophisticated than spoken language and leads to more complicated sentences. Some Prepositions dans in to, at de from sur on Examples: Je vis dans une grande ville I live in a big city. Les enfants vont l'cole The children are going to school. Il vient de France He comes from France. Nous marchons sur la route We are walking on the road. Normal SentencesThe basic framework of a nomral sentence is: Negative SentencesThe basic framework of a negative sentence is: While do not is located before the verb, in French the verb is putinbetween ne and pas.
Excepting this difference, the structure of a French negative sentenceis similar to its English counterpart. Tu ne chantes pas une chanson dans la rue. Il ne conduit pas la voiture tous les jours.
Le boulanger ne vend pas de pain dans la boulangerie. Interrogative SentencesThe primary goal of interrogative sentences is to ask questions!! That's what we call inFrench a "la palissade" or "un truisme" something obvious.
When asking a question, youmay want to know who qui in French or what que in French is performing the action,when quand in French the action is performed, how comment in French or where o inFrench it is performed, etc.
Most of questions need an interrogative conjunction whichindicate what we want to know. The basic interrogative conjunctions are: Basically, French language provides two interrogative structures: As the spokenlanguage is always simpler than the written one, the first structure is easier to understand. So, let's start with it. The basic structure is: Once again, the group of words est-ce que plays a role similar to do in the Englishinterrogative sentences.
As we see, the structure of a French interrogative sentence issimilar to its English couterpart. Note that the interrogative conjunction is optionaldepending on what you want to know. Est-ce que tu chantes une chanson dans la rue? Do you sing a song in the street? Qu'est-ce que tu chantes dans la rue?
What do you sing in the street?
Je chante une chanson. I sing a song Question: Est-ce qu'il conduit la voiture tous les jours? Does he drive the car every day? Oui, il condui la voiture tous les jours. Yes, he drives the car every day Question: Quand est-ce qu'il conduit la voiture? When does he drive the car? Il conduit la voiture tous les jours.
He drives the car every day Question: Est-ce que le boulanger vend le pain dans la boulangerie? Does the baker sellthe bread in the bakery? Qui est-ce qui vend le pain dans la boulangerie? Who sells the bread in thebakery? Le boulanger. The baker. Combien as-tu de frres? How many brothers do you have? J'ai deux frres I have two brothers or simply: Deux two.
Thisrule is illustrated in the examples Qu'est-ce qu'il and Est-ce qu'il and is general. Wehave already mentioned the same kind of contraction with the pronoun je I: This alteration is not a caprice of the Frenchlanguage but is conversely governed by strict grammatical rules. The que andthe qui we are talking about here belong to the pronouns category, as we are going tosee later in this course. Est-ce que does not depend on the gender nor the number of the subject while theEnglish do must respect the conjugation pattern of to do.
For the fisrt time, French issimpler than English! However, it is not grammatically incorrect to repeat the subject. Youmay want to do that in order to emphasize your answer. If you do so, you have torepeat all the words of the question Examples: Oui, je chante une chanson Yes, I dosing a song. Non, il ne conduit pas la voiture tous les jours No, he does not drivethe car every day Now, we can introduce the second interrogative structure.
Basically, this strcuture consistsof switching the position of the subject and the verb like this: Again, the interrogative conjunction is not mandatory. Questions AnswersChantes-tu une chanson dans la rue? Dans la rueQue chantes-tu dans la rue? Une chansonConduit-il la voiture tous les jours? La voitureQuand conduit-il la voiture?
Tous les joursIt is very easy. Otherwise, it is not so straight forward. When the subject is nota pronoun, the interrogative structucture is: Normal sentence: Le Boulanger vend le pain dans la boulangerie. Interrogative sentences1.
Le boulanger vend-il le pain la boulangerie?
O le boulanger vend-il le pain? Que le boulanger vend-il? La boulangre vend le pain dans la boulangerie. Interrogative sentences: La boulangre vend-elle le pain dans la boulangerie? O la boulangre vend-elle le pain? Que la boulangre vend-elle? The corresponding pronoun is"elle"Normal sentence: Les boulangres vendent le pain dans la boulangerie. Les boulangres vendent-elles le pain dans la boulangerie? O les boulangres vendent-ellesle pain?
Que les boulangres vendent-elles? The corresponding pronoun is"elles"Normal sentence: Le boulanger et la boulangre vendent le pain dans la boulangerie. Le boulanger et la boulangre vendent-ils le pain dans la boulangerie? O le boulanger et la boulangre vendent-ils le pain? Que le boulanger et la boulangre vendent-ils?
As far as the gender is concerned, you have to remember the machorule " the masculine wins over the feminine ". Consequently the gender of this subject ismasculine. The corresponding pronoun is then "ils"This fifth lesson ends the grammatical core of the course.
In the next lessons, we're going tofocus on the vocabulary and the language by itself i. Other major verb tenses past, future and conditonal will be introduce at a steady pace. So don't miss the next lessons. ExercisesBuild up the neagtive and interrogative sentences for the following normal sentences asshown in the example below: Pierre chante une chanson dans la rue Pierre is singing a song inthe street negative sentence: Pierre ne chante pas une chason dans la rue Pierre is not singinga song in the street interrogative sentence 1: O Pierre chante t-il une chanson?
Que chante Pierre dans la rue? Qui chante une chanson dans la rue? PierreList of normal sentences: Nous conduisons une voiture dans la ville We're driving a car in the city 2. Monsieur et Madame Dupont habitent une maison Toulouse Mr. Elle achte un gteau dans la ptisserie She downloads a cake in the bakery 4. Les enfants jouent au football dans le jardin The children play soccer in the garden Lesson 6 - The FamilySome sound files of this lesson are not available yet but I thought that it was worth releasing thislesson because I know how eager to learn French you are.
The missing sound files will be addedvery soon. Lesson plan: Madame Mrs.
Monsieur et Madame Dupont ont deux enfantsMr. Dupont have two childrenIls ont un garon et une filleThey have a boy and a girlLe garon s'appelle Pierre. Comment t'appelles-tu? The teacher: What's your name literally: How are you called? Quel ge as-tu? How old are you? J'ai dix ansPierre: Est-ce que tu as des frres et soeurs? Do you have any brother or sister? J'ai une soeur. Yes, I have one sisterL'institutrice: Quel ge a-t-elle? How old is she? Elle a huit ans. She is eightL'institutrice: Quel est ton nom de famille?
What's your family name? O est-ce que tu habites? Where do you live? J'habite ToulousePierre: I live in ToulouseNotes on Pronunciation1. One of the major characteristics of French pronunciation is the usage of what we callin French liaisons.
Liaisons are links between words. As mentioned in the first lesson "Guidelines for French Pronunciation" , most of the time, the final character of aword is not pronounced.
This rule is generally true but its scope is limited to separatewords. When words are assembled in a sentence, this rule is no longer applicable. Consider two words, for instance trois three andenfant child. Each separate wordis pronounced like this: That's what we call a liaison. You cannot use liaison between all words. A liaison takes place only when the firstword terminates with a consonant and when the second word begins with a vowel. For example there is no liaison between trois three and voiture car.
In addition,some consonants do not sound a normal way when pronounced in a liaison. Inparticular, some liaisons don't sound good or sound very weird to a French ear andmust be avoided.
No logic can help non French speaking people know whether aliaison must or must not be done. I suggest you to rely on the indications I am goingto add in the further lessons, as mentioned above underscore character. To getliaison instructions for the conversation above, click here.
The consonant combination ll is very frequent in French. The way you heaveto pronounce it depends on the character that precedes "ll": Let's apply this rule to some words introduced in this lesson: Therefore garon is pronounced [garsson]. Some other usual words have a like: Notes on Vocabulary1.
French people have a prnom and a nom. ThePierre's prnom is Pierre. His nom is Dupont. The last name or surname is alsoreferred to as nom de famille family name.
To express the age of people, French people don't use the verb tre to be as Englishpeople do but the verb avoir to have instead. Thus, we say: Note that in French, one asks the age of people using the following form: Genitive is the grammatical name of something very simple, in fact. Genitive denotes the ownership. In English the ownership is indicated by adding 's to theowner when it is a human being, or by using ofwhen the owner is a thing.
For example: Mr Dupont has two children, Pierre and Caroline. We can say that Pierre andCaroline are Mr Dupont's children. When talking about the wheels which belong to a car we say: In English, 's and of are used to denote the genitive form. In French, the genitive form isindicated by de in the same way as the English of.
For instance: Les roues de la voiture the wheels of the acr. In French, de is used to express ownership for either persons and things or animals. Possessive PronounsIn English possessive pronouns are: Their Frenchcounterpart are more complex because they depend on the gender and the number of theobject owned by the owner.
For example, when I talk about my bicycle vlo in French Isay mon vlo because vlo is a masculine singular noun.
When talking about my car voiturein French I say ma voiture because voiture is a feminine singular noun. When talking aboutmy shoes chaussures in French I say mes chaussures because chaussures is a plural noun. The following table shows how the possessive pronouns vary according to the gender andthe number. Note that when plural, the possessive pronoun is the same whatever the gender.
Consider the Mr and Mrs Dupont's car. Both Mr and Mrs Dupont say, whentalking about their car: In addition, let's review the sentences structure. The above conversation contains two kindsof sentence structure: Monsieur et Madame Dupont ont deux enfants.
The components are: Where the subject is "tu", the verbis "habites" and the interrogative conjunction is "o". Note that the teacher couldhave used the other interrogative sentence pattern: O habites-tu? La soeur de Pierre s'appelle CarolineL'institutrice: Je m'appelle PierreL'institutrice: The missingsound files will be added very soon.
Notes on Vocabulary4. Liaisons Guidelines1. ConversationLa famille Dupont a de nouveaux voisins. Pierre rencontre le fils de ses voisins. The Dupont Family has new neighbours.
Pierre meets the son of his neighbours. Je m'appelle Pierre. Hello, my name is Pierre. What is your name? Je m'appelle PeterPeter: My name is Peter. D'o est-ce que tu viens? Where do you come from? Je viens d'Angleterre.
Mes parents sont anglais. I come from England. My parents are english. Est-ce que tu viens de Londres?
Do you come from London? Je suis n Londres. I was born in London. Tu parles bien franais. Moi, je ne parle pas anglais. You speak French very well. As far as I am concerned, I don't speak English. Notes on VocabularyCountries and CitizenshipIn French, as in English, the first character of country names must be uppercase, while theuppercase is not required for the citizenship. Example refer to the " additional vocabulary "section for more country names: Citizenship is similar to an adjectif [je suis franais I am French ].
Consequently,citizenship must be in accordance with the gender and the number of the people considered. Elle est anglaise She is English Mes amis sont amricains My friends are American Les chinois et les chinoises ne sont pas grands Chinese men and women are not tall As same as citizenship, the way French people call the inhabitants of a city is not straightforward.
The list below provides some examples: City InhabitantSaint tienne stphanoisSaint Malo malouinBordeaux bordelaisMadrid madrilneMoscou moscovitePrepositions de and When used with verbs expressing a movement, the preposition de means from,while means to. Therefore, they are both key prepositions in French language. To illustrate that, consider the followingexpression: Note that de and have both different meanings depending on the verb they are associatedwith or their role in the sentence.
For instance, we have already mentioned see lesson 6 that de is used to express the genitive relationship between two words. Liaisons GuidelinesPierre: Je m'appelle PeterPierre: Lesson 8 - Comparer Comparing Some sound files of this lesson are not available yet but I thought that it was worthreleasing this lesson because I know how eager to learn French you are.
Liaisons Guidelines6. Ordinal Numbers1. ConversationMonsieur Dupont rencontre un collgue de travail au restaurant. Mister Dupont meets a colleague in a restaurant. J'ai envie d'acheter une nouvelle voiture. I'd like to download a new car. The colleague: Parce que ma voiture est trop vieille. Je dois la changer. Because my car is too old. I must replace it. Le collgue: Est-ce que tu as une ide de ce que tu veux acheter? Do you have an idea of what you want to download?
J'aimerais acheter la nouvelle Renault. Elle est superbe. I'd like to download the new Renault. It is superb. Oui, mais elle doit coter cher, n'est-ce pas?. Yes but it must be expensive, isn't it? En effet, elle cote cher, mais elle est moins cher que la nouvelle Peugeot.
C'est la plus performante et elle a la meilleure garantie. Indeed it is expensive but is less expensive than the new Peugeot. It is the mostperformant and it has the best warranty. Combien consomme-t-elle? How much gas does it consume? Sept litres au cent. Ce n'est pas beaucoup. C'est beaucoup moins que mavoiture actuelle.
En plus, elle est plus puissante. Seven litres every one hundred kilometers. It is. It is far less than my currentcar. In addition, it is more powerful. Tu as raison. Tu fais une bonne affaire. You're right. While in English one uses the verb to be in French one uses avoir tohave.
Emphasizing QuestionsConsider the following question: Is this car expensive? You ask this question because youdon't have any idea of the price of the car being considered. You expect that the person weare talking to tells you the price of the car. Now, imagine you already know the price of thecar, and it is really expensive. You surely don't ask your question the same way. You wouldprobably say: This car is expensive. Isn't it? In French it is possible to emphasize your questions the same way.
The normal interrogativeform is: Est-ce que cette voiture est chre? Cette voiture est chre. In the latter sentence, n'est-ce pas plays exactly the same role as the English isn'tit. There is, however, a difference between the English and the French form. It is The expression it is is translated in French by Cela est or more currently by the contractedform C'est. To some extent, cela or c' plays a similar role as it. However, cela must not beconsidered as the impersonal pronoun.
There is no impersonal pronoun in French it inEnglish because things and animals are either masculine or feminine. C'est une belle voiturre It is a nice car C'est une grande maison it is a big house C'est un homme agrable He is a pleasant man. It is a pleasant man. GrammarComparative and Superlative FormsComparatives are used to compare things. A comparison can express a superiority, aninferiority or an equality relationship. Present tense In French, there are much more verb tenses than in English.
Hopefully, a large number of them are rarely, or never, used in the spoken language. The simplest verb tense is the present which is used to describe actions that occur in the present time. Conjugating verbs in the present tense is very easy in English because the verb does not change, except for the 3rd singular person where a " s " is appended.
In French, the present tense conjugation is not so straight forward. The verbs termination varies according to the person and the verb group and might be altered. Let's try " aller " : j'alle, tu alles, etc. Unfortunately, it's wrong! Some of the 2nd group verbs conjugate like " finir " termination pattern : -s, -s, -t, -ssons, -ssez, -ssent and otherslike " venir " termination pattern : -s, -s, -t, -ons, -ez, -ent.
The case of " vouloir " is special for it is an irregular verb. There is no means to find out easily which pattern apply to a given 2nd group verb, excepting learning it by heart. Nevertheless, they respect a termination pattern -s, -s, -t, -ons, -ez, -ent but are altered.
Once again, no general rule can be drew up. I hope you have a good memory! They are also referred to as auxilliaries. French language makes use of only two auxiliary verbs tre and avoir while English has many of them to have, will, would, shall, should, can, could, must, might, ought to, etc. Consequently, their conjugation must be well known. Note that this remark is applicable to the verb " aller " as well.
It provides a Web conjugator on-line. So, don't give up now! Adjectives In the second lesson we saw that in French nouns have a gender : they can be either masculine or feminine. Some of them can be both and the feminine form is derived from the masculine by appending a " e ". We also learned how the plural affects the nouns, i. To sum up, we can say that the gender and the number singular or plural affect the nouns termination, by appending either a " e " or a " s " or sometimes something more complex.
There is an other kind of words in French which change in accordance to the gender and the number : the adjectives. Adjectives change according to the gender and the number of the noun which they qualify. The rules which we drew up for the nouns are applicable to the adjectives : Adjectives Concordance Rules Rule 1 - Concordance with the gender When the noun which an adjective qualifies is feminine, an " e " is appended to the adjective, if it does not already end with an " e ". Rule 2 - Concordance with the number When an adjective refers to a noun in the plurial form or more than 1 noun, a " s " is appended to it, if it does not end with a " s ", a" z " or a " x ".
Rule 3 - The rules 1 and 2 are cumulative, i. Rule 4 - Masculine is stronger! When an adjective refers to a group of masculine and feminine nouns, only the masculine concordance rule applies. This rule is also known as " the masculine wins over the feminine ", which is the more macho French grammar rule! Note : In most cases, the adjectives follow the noun or the group of nouns they refer.
However, this remark is not rigid and you can actually put an adjective before the noun it qualifies but be careful, by doing this, you may change the meaning!
Examples of adjective concordance rules Original sentence : Il conduit un camion bleu He drives a blue truck. Let's apply the fourth rules we mentioned above : Rule 1 - concordance with the gender: Il conduit une voiture bleue Rule 2 - concordance with the number : Il conduit des camions bleus Rule 3 - accumulation of rules 1 and 2: Il conduit des voitures bleues Rule 4 - " masculine wins over feminine " : Il conduit un camion et une voiture bleus 2.
Our first sentences Very simple sentences can be built using a subject, an adjective and the verb tre to be such as : La maison est grande The house is big.
La voiture bleue est chre The blue car is expensive. Tu es grand You are tall. Elle est belle She is nice. Les garons et les filles sont grands The boys and the girls are tall - Note that in this example the "macho" rule applies because the adjective grand is only in concordance with the noun garons. Note that the concordance rules apply to the adjective according to the gender and the number of the subject.
I advise you to buid such sentences using the few words you have already learnt. It's a good exercise which make you practice the feminine and plurial forms of the adjectives as well as the present tense conjugation of the verb tre. Have a good time. Stand alone words are rarely useful. To express an idea, whether complex or not, you need to combine words in order to build up sentences. French language distinguishes three basic sentence structures : normal sentence structure, negative sentence structure and interrogative sentence structure.
A typical French sentence is composed of the following elements : The people who or the thing which does the action : it is referred to as the subject of the sentence. We're going to adopt the term accusative abbreviation : ACC. We're going to call it circumstances abbreviation : CIR These elements play the role of elementary bricks that compose a sentence. French, as English, is a positional language, i.
So, each kind of sentence is built according to a specific structure or framework.
These structures are very useful because they indicate the postition of the various elements various bricks in a given kind of sentence normal, negative or interrogative.
In the context of spoken language they work pretty well. Written language is often more sophisticated than spoken language and leads to more complicated sentences. Some Prepositions dans in to, at de from sur on Examples : Je vis dans une grande ville I live in a big city. Les enfants vont l'cole The children are going to school. Il vient de France He comes from France.
Nous marchons sur la route We are walking on the road. Examples : verb ACC CIR meaning Tu chantes une chanson dans la rue You sing a song in the street Il conduit la voiture tous les jours He drives the car every day Le boulanger vend le pain dans la boulangerie The baker sells bread in the bakery subject 3. While do not is located before the verb, in French the verb is put inbetween ne and pas.
Excepting this difference, the structure of a French negative sentence is similar to its English counterpart. Examples : Tu ne chantes pas une chanson dans la rue. Il ne conduit pas la voiture tous les jours. Le boulanger ne vend pas de pain dans la boulangerie. Interrogative Sentences The primary goal of interrogative sentences is to ask questions!! That's what we call in French a "la palissade" or "un truisme" something obvious. When asking a question, you may want to know who qui in French or what que in French is performing the action, when quand in French the action is performed, how comment in French or where o in French it is performed, etc.
Most of questions need an interrogative conjunction which indicate what we want to know. The basic interrogative conjunctions are : qui who que what pourquoi why comment how quand when o where combien how many, how much Compared to the normal and negative structures, the interrogative sentences are a little bit more complicated.
Basically, French language provides two interrogative structures : a spoken laguage oriented structure and a written language oriented one. As the spoken language is always simpler than the written one, the first structure is easier to understand. So, let's start with it. Once again, the group of words est-ce que plays a role similar to do in the English interrogative sentences. As we see, the structure of a French interrogative sentence is similar to its English couterpart.
Note that the interrogative conjunction is optional depending on what you want to know. Examples : Question : Est-ce que tu chantes une chanson dans la rue? Do you sing a song in the street? Answer : oui yes or non no Question : Qu'est-ce que tu chantes dans la rue? What do you sing in the street? Answer : Je chante une chanson. I sing a song Question : Est-ce qu'il conduit la voiture tous les jours?
Does he drive the car every day? Answer : Oui, il condui la voiture tous les jours. Yes, he drives the car every day Question : Quand est-ce qu'il conduit la voiture?
When does he drive the car? Answer : Il conduit la voiture tous les jours. He drives the car every day Question : Est-ce que le boulanger vend le pain dans la boulangerie? Does the baker sell the bread in the bakery? Who sells the bread in the bakery?
Answer : Le boulanger. The baker. Question : Combien as-tu de frres?
How many brothers do you have? Answer : J'ai deux frres I have two brothers or simply : Deux two. Notes : 1. This rule is illustrated in the examples Qu'est-ce qu'il and Est-ce qu'il and is general.
We have already mentioned the same kind of contraction with the pronoun je I : je mange I eat and j'achte I download. This alteration is not a caprice of the French language but is conversely governed by strict grammatical rules. The que and the qui we are talking about here belong to the pronouns category, as we are going to see later in this course.
Est-ce que does not depend on the gender nor the number of the subject while the English do must respect the conjugation pattern of to do.
For the fisrt time, French is simpler than English! However, it is not grammatically incorrect to repeat the subject.